Sunday, 18 January 2015

k. Elizabeth Bradshaw - Settling in Hobart

Elizabeth Bradshaw was one determined lady.  Firstly she encountered all the hardships by following her husband on a death ship half way around the world to Botany Bay accompanied by her 2 year old daughter.

With her husband dead, and she a "free settler", Elizabeth might very well have been a lady worth pursuing.

Perhaps that is what Robert Jillett thought!                        

He becomes her "ward" then her partner, fathering two sons, then he worked in her businesses from 1799 until 1803, where once again he committed an offence serious enough to see him hang!

Instead of letting him go to Norfolk Island and face the consequences, she decides to sell everything and follow him.  That surely speaks of her nature!  Was it love? or was it her devotion to her young children?

One wonders what may have been if she had stayed on her large allotment in Sydney, and retained the lands on which Vaulcluse was later built.

So once again her strength overshadowed adversity and she prospered on her different allotments on Norfolk Island.

One thing to remember is that there was no currency at the time.  Trade was done from the commandant's store in barter, or more often in rum.  Currency was not introduced until 1817.

Elizabeth and the family land in Hobart on the Lady Nelson.

The sight could not be what she expected.  After 5 years of living in a fairly warm climate, except for the chilling south eastern winds, she steps out into the cold clime of Van Dieman's Land.  Tents became the home.

As a free settler Elizabeth was granted land in Hobart Town in lieu of the lands that she had left behind on Norfolk Island.
Hobart 1808

By late 1808 they had built on land on the corner of Collins and Campbell Street, Hobart, at the rear of the City Hall).  This would  probably have been a grant to Elizabeth in place of her Norfolk Island land.  
It was later described in correspondence as  her land

If you increase the size of this map you will be able to see the land is at the Town Hall site

.   This is new material online!  You can also see the rivulet that she speaks of.  How            amazing,opposite is a market.

Opposite them on the Hobart Rivulet in Collins Street (where the Royal Hobart Hospital stands) a Mrs. Catherine Kearney * (previous contributors alluded that she was a free woman, but that is incorrect) was granted land.

She also came from Norfolk Island with her two sons, William and Thomas.  

The Bradshaw/Jilletts would probably have known her on Norfolk Island.  Her grant was discovered with ti-tree and convicts cleared it.  She became known as the Dairy-woman of the Settlement and supplied the Government and the officers with milk from her herd.

Not far from the Bradshaw/Jillett residence, at the end of Hunter Street was Hunter Island, it has since been filled in and joined up near the I.X.L. Jones Jam Factory.  This Island was the place where all the criminals were hung.

The house was in Wapping at that stage.  Wapping was bounded by Campell, Park, Liverpool and Macquarie Streets. Park Street may have been the street in which St. Davids Burial ground was.

In 1811, when G.W. Evans, the Government surveyor was given the task of drawing up streets etc, it was found that the Bradshaw land was to be bi-sected by Collins and Campbell streets and it was found that one of the angles of the house projected onto Collins Street. Thre was quite a lot of communication regarding this land and house, and eventually in 1827 the Government decided to give 500 acres at Green Ponds (now Kempton) in compensation for the house and land.  Unfortunately that  Grant has not been found as yet.

In 1811 Frederick Bradshaw (Jillett) was born, but while his death was recorded in Thomas Jillett's 
bible (whereabouts unknown).

1811 map

On 4th March 1812, Mary Ann Bradshaw married Charles Horan at St David's Cathederal.  

Neither Mary Ann nor her husband were able to write evidently, as they both signed their
marriage certificate with a cross.  They were married by Robert Knopwood, Colonial Chaplain.

On April 4, 1812, Robert Jillett and Elizabeth Bradshaw were married by the Reverend Robert Knopwood at St. David's Cathedral.  From their marriage certificate, it appears both could write, although often Robert was known as Gillett, or Jillet.        

(Robert indicates on his marriage certificate that he is a widower.  In fact as there was no chance of a convict ever getting back to England to his wife, then on Norfolk Island and in Sydney the Commandants looked on the marriages as dissolved, and the convicts were allowed to live together or to take another partner and on both Norfolk Island and in Sydney there were so few women that many lived together so the authorities preferred co-habitation (or jumping over the broomstick) for a man and woman, rather than the man to live as a homosexual.  In fact the Government even sent a shipload of women not long after the first settlement, purely to provide comforts to the male prisoners and to populate the Colony.  One such ship was known as the "Floating Brothel".)

Built between 1868 and 1936 Saint David’s is widely regarded as the finest example outside England of the 
work of the leading Victorian architect, George F. Bodley.
In recent years the Cathedral has undergone restoration work with a new narthex, 
lighting scheme and restored stonework and floor.

Robert Jillett's pardon
 On 31st January, 1814 a CONDITIONAL PARDON No 323 was sent by the ship ACTIVE and arrived in the River Derwent on 22nd March 1814. It had been sent to B.L.Desrory.

November 1814, Comment from some Official Quarters, "There are no titles on record, whereby a right can be claimed, as individual property by Mr. Jillett", re the house in Ccllins Street.

With her marriage to Robert assured, the life of Elizabeth seemed to take a backward step.

Here she was a battler, a business person in her own right, a free settler, and by marriage he was able to lay claim to all her property.  Wonder who was the smart one in that relationship?

Sandy Bay 1808
Sandy Bay

Town Hall
in 1869


j Elizabeth Bradshaw Leaving Norfolk to make a new start in Tasmania

I wonder how Elizabeth would have felt, getting rid of all her crops, and her had work, and then gathering her family and her livestock to make ready to go to yet another land.

One of the most difficult problems that Governor Collins had to face was the flood of settlers from Norfolk Island who were forced upon him at the worst possible time.

This was made worse still by the apparent ignorance in London of the supply of building material and stock that the Governor could put his hand on at a moment’s notice, when in fact there had been a famine in Tasmania in 1806 and a great shortage prevailed of screws, axes, nails and other implements required for building houses.

The settlers and inhabitants from Norfolk Island were divided into three classes:

The first class consist of discharged marines and old servants of the Government who will be allowed food and clothing free of charge for two years, also four workmen rationed and clothed.  These are to have priority in everything.

The second class will be those who have been convicts but have earned complete freedon; they will be clothed and victualled and given two men to work for them for two years.

The third class covers all those islanders owning land or building but with no claims on the Government.  They will be clothed and fed from Governments stores for 12 months, with two men to help clear their grants of land in Van Diemen’s Land for the same period.

All classes are to be supplied with farm implements and other tools for use in cultivating the soild on their land.

Poor old Governor Collins had no idea how he could fulfil these conditions when he received the orders from Sydney.  Most of his men were old or feeble and some of them even the soldiers had been forced through lack of supplies to make their own clothing from the skins of kangaroos and possums.

In 1803 orders were given for the first group of Norfolk Islanders to be removed.  All moveable property belonging to these people, including their livestock, was to be taken at the cost of the Government, to any place they chose.

For every acre of cultivation they had left behind at Norfolk Island, four acres of land were to be granted them by Gov Collins, and two acres for any unimproved land they may possess.  They were also to receive free rations for them and their men.  Only enough people were to be left on Norfolk Island to grow maize and fatten the pigs.

Initially many of the islanders were happy to the terms, but as their crops were on the point of ripening they asked to leave after they had harvested the crops.  But then after having time to think the matter over, some of them objected strongly to being forced away from their tropical paradise, to the harsher conditions of Van Diemen’s Land.

The first Norfolk Islander to arrive at Hobart was George Guest, who came on the “Sydney” with Joseph Holt.  George brought with him his wife and six children and a flock of sheep.  Gov Bligh, when hearing of the arrival told Collins to by any of the sheep that he could for £2/2/- per head.  However many died during the voyage.

Two years later a stream of ships started bringing the Norfolkers in earnest.  The “Lady Nelson”, “Estromnia”, “City of Edinborough”, “Porpoise”, and “Buffalo” all 
brought their quota and Gov Collins was in despair.

It was easily seen that the Government would never be able to fulfil the promises that it initially gave as an enticement to come to Van Diemen’s Land.

Some of the islanders were billeted with the residents of Hobart Town, and some offered to waive all claims against the Government if Gov Collins would give them livestock equal in value to the homes they had left behind on Norfolk Island.

They were offered sheep and Bengal cows, instead of the houses, outhouses and barns they had been promised.  They required clothing and bedding, but there was none to be given.  Instead of 386 people expected, there were nearly 800, being the whole of the establishment from Norfolk not including the military.

Some of the chararacters had been described by Capt Piper, Commandant of Norfolk Island, as being “desperate characters”.   (Robert Jillett was one such person)

Collins also had to contend with the antics of Governor Bligh.  Bligh was certainly a shifty character, and it was not uncommon for him to just take whatever he wanted from the new settlers.
He took command of the “Porpoise” and moored it midsteam.  He loaded its guns, and ordered all
passing craft to come close enough for inspection.  Later the vessel was moved downstream
towards Sandy Bay where the Norfolkers and others smuggled fresh meat and vegetables on
board against orders.

Eighteen of the Norfolk Islanders expressed their support for Bligh, and there was a seething
unrest in the community.
At one stage Bligh ordered the ship’s guns to open fire on passing craft, but the balls were
fired high and while damage was done no lives were lost.

Collins prohibited all communication between the ship and the shore, and finally Bligh moved
the boat down channel to a commanding position at the mouth of the Derwent near Bruny Island.

  Here he behaved like any other pirate, robbing passing ships at gun point and taking supplies
intended for the settlement at Hobart Town.  Many of the settlers risking Collins’ wrath drove
their sheep and cattle to a point where they could be slaughterd for supplies to the Porpoise. 

Elizabeth and her family were on the Lady Nelson and left for Tasmania in 1808.

The Norfolk Island Evacuation List of 1808/1808 shows:

Elizabeth Bradshaw   Norfolk Settler,  3rd Class, 5 children
   15 1/2 acres cleared, 68 1/2 acres not cleared
   House (Maten boaded) & Flaxed  17 x 11  Outhouse thatch & logs   Value  £8

3rd Embarkation for VDL Lady Nelson  14th February 1808

         2 Male and 28 female sheep
        17 Male, 2 female sheep, 1.2 grown   Value  £59
        11 acres maize

Elizabeth was a remarkable woman.  The trip on the Lady Nelson, with her 6 children and the farm animals must have seemed like a bit of a breeze from her first voyage to Australia aboard the "Hillsborough".

Just consider for a moment how difficult it must have been just to board the ship.  There was no jetty, no wharf, nothing except the row boats. 

Many ships had perished just a few metres from the coastline.  The most famous among them the ss "Sirius", in 1790, before Elizabeth's time on the island, but which she would have been familiar.  The Sirius went down in 1790, with the island losing all its supplies.

 Today there is a very interesting museum on Norfolk Island, called the Sirius Museum.  It stands in an old Church building at Kingston, and should not be missed.

Unloading and loading of ships at Norfolk Island is done exactly the same way as it was in 1789, as these photos will show.

The men who man the boats are residents.  When a ship comes in they down tools at whatever job they are doing and all come to the wharf to assist in the unloading of the Supply ships.  When these photos were taken the sea was calm.  Can you imagine the dangers of this work when the large swells are rolling?

To launch a fishing boat, they have implements on the inside of the boat, which are hooked onto the crane on the jetty.  Within seconds the boat is out, or in!

The boats are called "lighters". This day there were about 3 sets working the unloading. The front vessel tows the rear boat which is stacked full of pallets.  These are then lifted onto the shore by the crane, and taken by a fleet of trucks.

f Edward and Elizabeth Westlake's children

They had 7 children, and Elizabeth's daughter was also known as Elizabeth Westlake.

Samuel                        born 1792 Norfolk Island  d 1871 Geelong Hospital Victoria *
Mary  born          1794,            died 1879
Ann born             1796            ,
Susannah            1799   m    Thomas Shone  d New Norfolk 1882
Richard                1800,          d 1881 Bourke NSW
George                 1802           d  1814 Hobart
Charles                1804            d  1877           Paupers grave Corillian Cemetery Hobart

The list of deaths in the Geelong hospital for the present month contains the name (says the Advertiser 1871) of Samuel Westlake, a man who was born in Norfolk Island, and was eighty years of age at the time of his death. He stated that he was the first white person born in Australia. He died of pneumonia.

Mary                She married twice once to John Broadhurst Boothman and secondly to                             Samuel Cash. She had 7 children
Ann                 It is presumed that Ann married Joseph Morris (sea captain) Sydney 1812.

Joseph was the captain of the ss Hunter and the ss Atlantic and often had dealings in Hobart.  At the time of the marriage in 1812, there were no other Westlake families in the colony. From the marriage in 1812, the is nothing to be found about in Australia, regarding Ann Westlake (Morris). 

Susannah       She had a daughter Amelia when she was 16, father unknown.
                       Then she married Thomas Shone, lived at Stanton New Norfolk, and had two                                children.  Mary Ann and Thomas Shone Jnr
                   **  Mary Ann Shone married Thomas Jillett son of Robert and Elizabeth Jillett  
                        (Bradshaw) thus linking the two Norfolk Island families.
Susannah Westlake

Amelia Westlake

Richard           Died in 1881 in Bourke, NSW, As late as 1837 he was still farming in                                 Clarence Plains.

George             Died aged 12 and is buried in Hobart

Charles           Buried 4th June 1877 was a patient at Brickfields Department, and is buried                   at Cornellian Bay Cemetery in the paupers section.

Strength of the establishment on the 31st 'December 1854. Secondly, as regards the Cascade Factory, Female House of Correction, and Brickfields Establishments. State of Prison Buildings. S3. 

Looks like our Charles was either a prisoner or in a mental asylum as Brickfields seems to be what that was used for. 

e Elizabeth Wood

Elizabeth Wood (born about 1763), (wife of John Wood ), was tried at the Old Bailey Sessions on 9th September 1789, convicted, and sentenced to transportation for 7 years.

Elizabeth Wood was married to John Wood. Her maiden name was Adams.  She was found guilty of defrauding Ann Gadbury and sentenced to transportation for 7 years.  She arrived in the Second Fleet on the Neptune, 1790.  She was 5'5" tall, grey eyes, brown hair, shallow complexion, and came from Kent.

She was charged with stealing, on 19th August from a hosier's shop kept at Shoreditch Turnpike (London) by Isaac Garner, a pair of silk stockings (worth seven shillings ) and a pair of cotton stockings (three shillings and sixpence ). She and a younger woman, Sarah Conjuit, were tried by Mr Justice Wilson and a Middlesex Jury;

Researchers have noted that Sarah was carrying a child, thought to be Elizabeth Wood's daughter. Elizabeth and her small daughter, aged about 4, also named Elizabeth , were in Newgate Prison until 11th November 1789 when they and other convicts taken to the River Thames to be taken by lighter to the "Neptune" transport  at Woolwich, where she had been since mid-October awaiting her complement of convicts.  That could not be the case as Sarah was not transported, she was sent to the Hall of Corrections.

The "Neptune" sailed as part of the Second Fleet from Portsmouth on 17th January 1790; the "Neptune" was built in the Thames in 1779 and was the largest vessel used to that date in transporting convicts. She arrived at the Cape of Good Hope on 13rd April and after 16 days at the Cape she sailed again on 29th April, arriving at Port Jackson, New South Wales, 28th June 1790, having been 160 days on passage.

A total of 502 convicts embarked  on "Neptune", 161 died at sea and 269 sick were landed at Port Jackson. The conditions on board were indescribably bad, scurvy was rife.

Elizabeth and her small daughter were sent from Port Jackson to Norfolk Island on the "Surprize", arriving 7th August 1790.

On Norfolk Island, Elizabeth (senior) formed a relationship with a First Fleeter, Edward Westlake.
There is a marriage record for 1791.

Edward and Elizabeth had 7 children. 
Mary Ann Shone

Samuel               born        1791  d  1871 Victoria
Mary                  born        1794, d 1879 married John Broadhurst Boothman, and had 7 children
Stephanie Ann    born        1797  d   1882
Susannah           born         1798, d  1882 married Thomas Shone  mother of                                               Mary Ann Shone and  Thomas Shone. 

                                            She had a daughter Amelia, to an unknown                                                          father   when she was 16, in 1816.
Richard               1799, 
George               born         1802  d   1814
Samuel              born          1803
Charles              born          1804       d  1877

Elizabeth's daughter Elizabeth was also known as Elizabeth Westlake.  Elizabeth Jnr married James Pillinger on 15th January 1806 on Norfolk Island. They had two children while on Norfolk, and many more when they returned to Tasmania.                                 

William was born 1805 prior to the marriage and was known as William Wood. (No further records can be found but he did return to VDL   James Pillinger was born in 1806.

Again the plaque in St David's is incorrect, because neither children were named, in fact they never had a child called John and Elizabeth was born in 1812!  Long after the ship docked.

The Westlake and Pillinger families were relocated to Van Diemens Land aboard the "City of Edinburgh" in 1808.  

Alfred Pillinger

One of the Pillinger grandchildren became a member of Parliament in Tasmania, and his portrait hangs in the Oatlands Town Hall.  He was also Mayor of Oatlands.

Elizabeth Westlake was buried as Elizabeth Wood in Hobart on 19th November 1808 (age given as 45). 

Edward Westlake died in New Norfolk 11th November 1828   (age given as 77).

(Note Edward Westlake was buried in the Old Council Cemetery at New Norfolk, but since 1992 his headstone has not been visible).  Was this the same cemetery as Lawitta, or Magna?)

Only 6 children are listed as returning on the City of Edinburgh.  Susannah is not listed, but she certainly returned to Hobart!  Several of the children can be accounted for as the remaining 3 sons all appear on the musters recorded in 1818, 1819.   Mary and Susannah had recorded marriages , and George died in 1814, Charles died in 1877.

The newspaper records of the day provide an insight into the life and times of the families.  In 1827 Samuel Westlake, a sawyer absconded from his employer, he stated he was sick and never returned!  

In 1829, Edward Westlake owed 18 shillings to the Government for his 105 acres at Gloucester.  He was farming wheat.  His partner in crime Noah Mortimer also owed money for his rent!

Records indicate that Elizabeth Westlake died in Hobart 19th November 1808.  Who then, raised the children?

d. Edward Westlake m Elizabeth Wood His land on Norfolk Is

Edward Westlake was selected  as one of a founding party of 23 persons to settle Norfolk Island from Port Jackson sailing on the "Supply", 15 Feb 1788, under the command of Lieut. Philip Gidley King.

King had promised that they could return to England after their sentences were complete.

(There is a new museum on Norfolk Island with information about the First Fleet Convicts, Edward's name is listed on the honour board).

Those people going were:
Jamieson, Surgeon s Mate of the "Sirius"; Mr James Cunningham, Master s Mate of the "Sirius"; Mr T. Altree, Assistant Surgeon; two seamen- Roger Morely & William Westbrook; two Marines from the "Sirius"-Kerridge & Batchelor; Six female convicts-Elizabeths Lee, Hipsley & Colley, Olive Gascoin, Ann Inett and Susan Gough; six male convicts-Charles Mc Lellan, Richard Widdicombe, Edward Garth, Edward Westlake, John Mortimore, Noah Mortimore, Nathaniel Lucas and two other names not known.

King discovered Lord Howe Island en route and arrived off Norfolk Island on the 28th of February and landed on the island on 6 Mar 1788.

Edward Westlake petitioned Governor Phillip on 28 Sep to allow his family to be sent out to join him. The request was granted but his family did not go to NSW.

Further landings of convicts were made so that by Feb of 1790 there were 149 inhabitants.

In Jul 1791 he was subsisting three persons on a one acre size Sydney town lot with 58 rods 
cleared.  (Sydney town was Kingston)

In Sept 1791 Lt-Gov. King had deemed it necessary to nominate a nightwatch of 21 persons, to patrol several assigned areas. Edward Westlake was one of 5 trusted men to patrol the Arthur s Vale area, under Captain Hussey, defined "from Capt Paterson s garden to the Governor s garden." 

Life on the Island was very difficult.  They had to cope with the weather, the guards, the winds, the conditions, and at one stage there was a plot to hijack a boat and row away.  They had no idea that they were virtually trapped on the island.  Noah Mortimer was punished with 60 lashes for refusing to work!

The journal written by Phillip Gidley King is well worth reading as it details the events of the day.

One of the benefits for the convict men was that they could chose to marry on the island, mainly because he did not want to encourage any homosexuality and he also told them that they would be sent back to England if they chose it.  That certainly did not happen.

Edward Westlake married Elizabeth Wood, nee Adams, herself a convict.

Colleen McCullough wrote a book about her husband's family, called Morgan's Run.  It tells the story of Richard Morgan and others, about their life and times in the First Settlement it is well worth reading.

A visit to Norfolk Island is a must just to walk in an ancestors footsteps, reflect on the conditions that Edward and Elizabeth and their children all faced.

 Imagine trying to walk from their land to Kingston, to have their details recorded, when they were off stores or to attend the Sunday church services.

The land is so hilly, and today there are roads and bridges to cater for the cars, and the cattle have made their own tracks on the hillside.

He married Elizabeth Wood (Adams) on 5th November 1791 when the Rev Richard Johnson arrived and married around 100 people.

On 15 Jan 1793 Westlake was granted 24 acres, (Lot 3) which is about 800 metres
east of the wharf at Cascade Bay, and had 2 sows, a cock and six hens, going off stores at once for grain and by May for meat.   That meant they were totally reliant on what they grew. 

By Oct 1793 he had cultivated four of his 24 acres, all ploughable, and in June he was living with Elizabeth Wood and three children (Elizabeth had been sent to Norfolk Island after arriving with the Second Fleet).

(His land is high, level, and with views to the water, it is still farmed today)

In 1794 Edward Westlake was described as a farmer and the occupations of the Norfolk Islanders in Feb 1805 show the three men as settlers and landowners, and off the stores, as their sentences had expired.

By Mar 1805 he had seven children, all born in the colony plus the daughter that Elizabeth Wood brought with her on the "Neptune". He was a second class settler with 20 acres cultivated and 62 waste, he also owned 36 swine.

In 1806 he was credited 22 pounds ten shillings for the sale of 15 full grown sheep.

In Aug 1807 he is recorded as holding 82 acres, 15 in grain and 67 pasture, with 21 sheep, 36 hogs and 100 bushells of maize in hand.

When it was decided to disband the settlement five vessels were used over a period of six years to transport the inhabitants of Norfolk Island to Van Diemen s Land..

William Maum in a letter he wrote to a friend about the trip on the "Porpoise":-

"We arrived here in safety after a most favourable passage of 19 days (ship records say it took 23 days). We encountered no storms and the sea was so smooth that an open boat might safely come the same voyage, which was a happy circumstance considering the great number packed and stored on board, whose situation would be deplorable had we encountered bad weather.....On our arrival here the settlers and others were billeted on the inhabitants of this town, which is far larger than you could suppose. The houses in general are lath and plaster, and immoderately dear, as a house equal in size to your workshop, of such bad materials, would bring you 50 pounds."

The "City of Edinburgh" was chartered to move the Norfolk Islanders. She sailed from there on 9 Sep 1808 and arrived at Hobart Town 2 Oct 1808.

Among those on board was Edward Westlake, his wife and six children. He had left behind buildings valued at 22 pounds plus  82 acres and was to receive 105 acres at Roache s Beach, Rokeby (Bellerive or Clarence Plains). The population of Hobart Town in 1808 was 799 persons

Note. In some records his name was spelt Westlick, the phonetic spelling.

Colonial Secretary s Index held at NSW Archives lists :-
"1796, Dec 30 - on list of all grants and leases of land registered in the CSO

In an index to land grants in VDL (1813) -Fiche 3262; 4/438. p.94.
1819-1822 On list of persons owing quit rents in VDL, for land at Clarence Plains

25 May 1821- Indebted to the Government at Hobart (Reel 6054; 4/1757 p 64c.)

In 1815 he signed a petition for a Court of Criminal Judicature.
"Hobart Town Gazette" Sat 29 March 1817 : "A List of Settlers who have tendered Wheat for Supply of His Majeftey s Stores, with the Quantity that will be received from each-- Edw. Weftlake 39 bufhels"

"H.T. Gazette" Sat 14 Feb 1818 under Public Notice:  "The under-mentioned Grants of Land are now lying at the Acting Deputy Affiftant Commiffary General s Office for Delivery on the Fees being paid which are due thereon- Edward Weftlake, 105 acres, 2/2/7d"

The 1818 Muster taken from 7 Sep till 2 Oct, 1818 listed every person in Hobart Town includes Edward Westlake as off the stores.

"H.T.Gazette" 28 Mar 1823 advertised a 60 acre grant for Edward Westlake that would be relinquished if not taken up.

c. Edward Westlake - a First Fleeter m Elizabeth Wood

First Fleet Convicts Edward Westlake

Edward Westlake born, 28 December 1752, was tried at Exeter, Devon on 20th March 1786 for stealing 40 pounds of mutton with a value of 10 shillings.  He was sentenced to transportation for 7 years and left England on the Charlotte, one of the 6 ships of the First Fleet. He was one of 717 convicts who survived, arriving at Port Jackson on 26th January, 1788.    .  
Edward was born at Sampford Courtnay in Devon, son of Edward Westlake and Mary Reddaway, and baptised on 28th December 1752. He married Elizabeth Mortimer at Chagford, Devon, on 30th December 1779, and their sons John born 1780, Edward born 1784, and Thomas born 1785 were all born at Chagford where their father Edward was a farmer.
Chagford, in the heart of Devon, lies on the edge of legendary Dartmoor National Park and is close to the beautiful River Teign.  Easily accessible from Exeter, it is an important stopping point for visitors venturing to the picturesque South West of England. As a famous Stannary town, Chagford has an exciting and vibrant history  
 At the Devon Lent Assizes, held at Exeter on 20 March 1786, before Sir James Eyre and Sir Beaumont Hotham; John Mortimer, Noah Mortimer and Edward Westlake were committed for sheep stealing on 26th December 1785.

"For stealing one weather sheep price 12 shillings the goods of John Rowe and for stealing 40 pounds of mutton, value 10 shilling the goods of a person unknown"
All three men were found not guilty of the first charge by guilty of the second and sentenced to seven years transportation.
He was 34 years of age when received on the hulk "Dunkirk", where he was tolerably decent and orderly" and embarked on 11th March 1787 with the First Fleet on the "Charlotte" which arrived at Port Jackson 26th January 1788. Now known as  Australia Day
At the time of his conviction, it was noted that his partners in the crime were John Mortimer and Noah Mortimer.  Edward was married to Elizabeth Mortimer, so it is assumed that they were her father (John) and brother (Noah).  A report from the night watch member while the ship was at Dunkirk notes that the hulk was "tolerably decent and orderly."

In March 1788, not long after arriving, a party of 23 people including 15 convicts (9male, 6 female) were chosen to make the 1368 klm journey to Norfolk Island.  The aim was to farm the land and to grow crops to support the increasing population in Sydney. 

 Edward was sent as he was the best of a bad lot.

Given that the convicts were chained together, the conditions must have been deplorable. 

Three of the Norfolk Islanders were the Devon men, John Mortimore, Noah Mortimore and Edward Westlake, each had been jointly tried at Exeter for stealing a sheep valued at twelve shillings, and forty pounds of mutton valued at ten shillings. The sheep stealing charge was dismissed but each received seven years transportation on the second count. John and Noah may have been father and son as John was stated to be 70 years of age when he received 100 lashes on Norfolk Island in 1791.

b Family Links to Norfolk Island

Our family links to First Fleeters on Norfolk Island are through Thomas and Mary Ann Jillett

Edward Westlake and his wife Elizabeth Wood are the 5th Great grandparents of John Herron.
Their daughter Susannah Westlake was the fourth great grandmother.
225 year anniversary

Her daughter Mary Ann Shone was the third great grandmother, and she married Thomas Jillett, son of Robert Jillett and Elizabeth Bradshaw, both of whom lived on Norfolk Island, arriving 1803.

Edward Westlake lived in Devon in United Kingdom.  He was a first fleet convict, and he arrived in Australia in 1788 on board the Charlotte.  Five weeks later we was on the ship to Norfolk Island, as an original member of the First Fleet Settlement.

He was chosen as one of only 23 persons to make the voyage. 9 convict males and 6 females took to the ocean in the ship Supply, and arrived 6th March 1788, landing at Kingston. Captain Phillip King was the commanding officer.  The convicts were chosen because of their behaviour on board the voyage from England.

One of the benefits for the convict men was that they could chose to marry on the island, mainly because he did not want to encourage any homosexuality and he also told them that they would be sent back to England if they chose it.  That certainly did not happen.

Edward was in good company because he arrived with his father-in-law, John Mortimore, aged 72 and his brother-in-law Noah Mortimore.  Edward had been married to Elizabeth Mortimore.

The settlers arrived and were made to clear the land around the landing spot.  They could not possibly imagine where they were.  A small speck of an island, covered in extremely tall pine trees.

In fact 95% of the island was covered with the majestic tall Norfolk Island pinetrees.
They were put to work to clear the land and plant crops.

The area is now known as Arthur's Vale.

Today the only occupants at Arthur's Vale are the well fed cows and families of ducks, geese and chickens.

A visit to the lagoon is a must, but make sure you bring the left over bread scraps, because they do expect to be fed!

Life on the Island was very difficult.  They had to cope with the weather, the guards, the winds, the conditions, and at one stage there was a plot to hijack a boat and row away.  They had no idea that they were virtually trapped on the island.  Noah Mortimer was punished with 60 lashes for refusing to work!

The journal written by Phillip Gidley King is well worth reading as it details the events of the day.

Edward Westlake married Elizabeth Wood, nee Adams, herself a convict.

Among their children was Susannah.  Susannah was the mother of Mary Ann Shone, who married Thomas Jillett, son of Robert and Elizabeth Jillett.

Colleen McCullough wrote a book about her husband's family, called Morgan's Run.  It tells the story of Richard Morgan and others, about their life and times in the First Settlement it is well worth a visit.

During your visit, reflect on the conditions that Edward and Elizabeth and their children all faced.

Imagine trying to walk from their land to Kingston, to have their details recorded, when they were off stores.

The land is so hilly, and today there are roads and bridges to cater for the cars, and the cattle have made their own tracks on the hillside.

Map from the Golf Club